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Focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and opinions of multiple individuals at once. 46 (4), 1125-1136. You may also see if this person tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group reacted. 0 & Zoran, A.G. (2009). I would not even want to try to discuss focus group analysis in much detail in such a short blog post, but I do hope that the above gives you a general idea of what it may involve (and that you will understand that it is definitely NOT the same as individual interview analysis!). When you investigate the “individual” layer, for example, not only do you want to pay attention to all views and opinions expressed by one group member throughout the discussion, but also to how this participant “functioned” within the group (were these views relevant to what was being discussed, were they similar to/conflicting with the group’s views, etc. Thematic analysis is a method for qualitative data analysis. %PDF-1.6 %���� Theory and Practice. might arise for any analysis of focus group data, and utilize techniques from both the above approaches. INTRODUCTION TO APPLIED THEMATIC ANALYSIS 5 DEFINING QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Before talking about process, we should first define what we mean by “qualita- tive research, ” since the definition influences how we characterize qualitative data analysis, the data items to be used in our analysis, and the types of analyses Qualitative research can explore the complexity and meaning of social phenomena,1,2 for example patients' experiences of illness3 and the meanings of apparently irrational behaviour such as unsafe sex.4 Data for qualitative study may comprise written texts (e.g. On the other hand, this shared status seemed to result in some group members’ opinions being silenced or ignored (see Appendix B for an extract), arguably because of the participants’ evaluation of what is socially desirable and acceptable in their circumstances. Quality & Quantity. 0000002169 00000 n Focus Group. Acocella, I. x�b```f``���d$32 � +�0p\�1)0�`h|ۨ�P���@��� 0000002693 00000 n Franz, N.K. Typically, these seemingly informal discussions occur in a group of no more than 12 individuals (Asbury, 1995; Smithson, 2008), who share some common characteristics (Franz, 2011) and “have a direct experience of the topic” (Acocella, 2012: 1127), and, thus, are treated as ‘experts’ (Stewart and Shamdasani, 1990). Were these views supported? Importantly, these different layers are not necessarily “steps” – thus, in practice, the analysis of one layer is difficult to separate from another (although I think there are also some guidelines that suggest doing so). Focus groups lasted between 45 and 60 minutes and were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Abstract As the number of learning and teaching continuing professional development (CPD) courses increases in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), so too does the accompanying number of learning innovations being implemented and evaluated. Qualitative data from the focus groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s (2006) six-step thematic content analysis method. Focus groups are essentially a “series of discussions to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest” (Krueger and Casey, 2009: 2). This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. After the focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired to conduct a content analysis of the transcripts. Focus groups could provide information about a range of ideas and feelings that individuals have about certain issues, as well as illuminating the differences in perspec-tive between groups of individuals. For example, in the Hubei focus group, where all the participants majored in English education, they established a collective voice of ‘English majors’ quite effortlessly, and constructed their narratives as a group of ‘experts’ in their field. Focus groups. Thematic analysis has been poorly branded, yet widely used in qualitative research (Braun & Clarke, 2006), and has been rarely appreciated in the same way as grounded theory, ethnography, or phenomenology.Braun and Clarke (2006) argued that thematic analysis should be a foundational method for qualitative analysis, as it provides core skills for conducting many other forms of qualitative analysis. However, in the Sophia focus group, the participants did not seem to have established a shared identity or status from which they could speak in a collective voice. This is a short practical guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Of the three examples identified that compare analytical approaches, one used focus group data to compare thematic analysis (TA) of a partial dataset with mind-mapping of a full dataset.11 While this paper provides minimal detail regarding the method of comparison, it reported differences in time taken to analyse the data and in the number and presentation of codes. 0000003324 00000 n Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 33, 131-6. Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… When preparing this post, I did a quick online search for what people say about focus group analysis and immediately found comments such as the following: “analyzing focus group interviews is not greatly different from analyzing one-person interviews.”, “I personally think that the analysis of focus group data is not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data. Did he/she distance him/herself from the group?). The unfocused focus group: benefit or bane? Often, TA is used in research studies and subsequently labeled as qualitative research, without providing the necessary details about how the analysis reduced the data into workable themes and the emerging conclusions. trailer 133 0 obj <> endobj Third, we introduce a new way of analyzing focus group data, what we term micro-interlocutor analysis, which incorporates and analyzes information from the focus group by delineating which participants respond to each question, the order of responses, and the nature of the responses (e.g., non sequitur, rambling, focused) as well as the nonverbal communication used by each of the … 0000001235 00000 n I am passionate about research and I started Qualitative Researcher to share my knowledge and teach research skills to students and professionals worldwide, Qualitative Research Methods – Interviews, Free online course on how to develop a research idea, Section 2 – Developing research questions, Free “Qualitative researcher’s toolkit” book, View/Download the book (free registration required), Galloway, Kriukow and Numajiri (2017: 29), qualitative research specialist Edinburgh. Wilkinson (1998) argues that many articles based on focus group research appear to be treating the data as identical to individual interview data, and the unique aspects of focus groups are habitually ignored in the analysis. 0000000676 00000 n 0000005152 00000 n © 2017, Qualitative Researcher Dr Kriukow. 151 0 obj<>stream This process of qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). 0000059336 00000 n recordings of interviews, focus groups or consultations). Focus group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis of other forms of qualitative data. Two service user focus groups will be conducted for each of these diagnoses: Personality Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, Schizophrenia, Depressive Disorder and Generalised Anxiety Disorder. Handbook of. The analysis was undertaken by both nurses individually and discussion took place to agree on developing themes. Thematic analysis is a method of analyzing qualitative data.It is usually applied to a set of texts, such as interview transcripts.The researcher closely examines the data to identify common themes – topics, ideas and patterns of meaning that come up repeatedly. �+��`^1 E���e,)̋ 0000010589 00000 n Feel free to explore some of the sources I list below and scroll all the way down to read an extract from a report for the British Council, in which I specifically focus on how the analysed groups managed establishing a “common ground”. All rights reserved. Or ignored? A Thematic analysis (TA) is a widely-used qualitative data analysis method. 2.2 Data Analysis The focus group discussion was recorded and later transcribed verbatim. i��p����Qm��W^�̍����r�1��DC�C;¿O�Gs�j[S�w�e��@�m�aX�� This was the only group that did not discuss language-related challenges and they were more critical of using languages other than English in EMI classes.”. Qualitative and focus group data analysis software MAXQDA offers a wide range of focus group analysis tools, that makes analyzing these transcripts less time-consuming and easier to … Most people who ask for specific analytic tools in focus groups do so because they don’t have experience with analyzing other kinds of qualitative data, so they think there must be something unique about focus groups.”. These discussions are facilitated by a moderator. Asbury, J.-E. (1995). Inductive thematic analysis (TA): open coding: Evaluation of an innovative, evidence‐guided, PBL approach 11: In order to understand the experiences of students and PBL facilitators during curriculum change to a PBL programme, the authors used TA to analyse focus group data: Deductive thematic/content analysis: predetermined categories CHAPTER 1. Thematic analysis is used in qualitative research and focuses on examining themes or patterns of meaning within data. The data from these groups will be coded and inductively analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Did they emerge because of some other participant’s views? You are required to write up TWO themes that you have found in the focus group data that you have been given (please see the focus group transcript which AKA the data file). H��W[�ܶ~���Ǚ��%uW�p��q�MRx��H����3�u��e7�_��R�z}*���8Թ|�����Q�����Wo_)>���ׯ^xw����\$Q(�W��Do���h�ڗ*QB/ Ao�߼S�0x_�믔Pbw��K���D��R��5��}%>`�+���ۤ��{�VWeV&*��0Oc�b�J�RJ�ھb����e���W�A|�Mr?�t�4�7}7��k=����o�"t.I�,?��U(�;���P X��jGӟz3��Z�݊[vr`'%� #wS�C�F��4�� �'ŕ��{�l *���<4��W�{���U$C?›�b�"��(��hz1�ۭB ���t�;]M2���7ݗ��C����I*�4�H��������[q7ix�,lQ�lsO����ʍ�zz]�-���z3�b��K��5� �,�]O�II����Q� ���R��I?���z;�� �p�ôo��B�L�(�����Tdw���YƉ��ug��6�WF�p�oC )))�,. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) (2009) propose another useful structure for focus group analysis which is centred around a combination of different data analysis techniques – constant comparison method (which may involve comparing themes emerging in different focus groups), content analysis (e.g. Smithson, J. 0000007077 00000 n Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research. In Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. The analysis of focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “layers” (Willis et al.) ... use the columns to structure important variables of your data analysis … Findings from this will be used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11. Focusing exclusively on individual participants’ accounts (which would be the case if “the analysis of focus group data [was] not much different from the analysis of any other kind of interview data”, as suggested above) would mean that we are overlooking the most unique and valuable aspects of focus group discussion – the group’s views and group dynamics. Stewart, D.W. & Shamdasani, P.N. Similarly, when you focus on the “group” and the “group interaction” layers, it is not possible to ignore the individual roles. There are occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary. How Focus Group Analysis Is Different There is not one way to do qualitative analysis. They spoke of themselves as collective ‘majors in English education’ on one hand, and talked about other students as ‘them’ or ‘other students’ on the other (see Appendix A for an extract). Refer to the Week 5 Handout: Content Analysis of Focus Groups. A Qualitative Framework for Collecting and Analyzing Data in Focus Group Research. �/O��Af�� � Willis, K., Green, J., Daly, J., Williamson, L. & Bandyopadhyay, M. (2008). When you use thematic coding to analyze customer feedback for example, you can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim by a third party. Thematic Analysis of Focus Groups With Consumers and Carers of Mental Illness. Perils and possibilities: achieving best evidence from focus groups in public health research. Thematic coding, also called thematic analysis, is a type of qualitative data analysis that finds themes in text by analyzing the meaning of words and sentence structure. Overview of Focus Group Research. ... A recording is a highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups. Each focus group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings. coding the content of the discussion and paying attention to coding frequencies), and keywords-in-context and discourse analysis, both of which involve careful examination of the use of words, and language as a whole, throughout the focus group discussion (at both the group and individual levels). The focus groups in social research: advantages and disadvantages. Its popularity partly reflects its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion (Braun & Clarke, 2006). endstream endobj 134 0 obj<> endobj 135 0 obj<> endobj 136 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>> endobj 137 0 obj<> endobj 138 0 obj<> endobj 139 0 obj<> endobj 140 0 obj<> endobj 141 0 obj<> endobj 142 0 obj<> endobj 143 0 obj<>stream 0000028099 00000 n As data, speeches, and individual interviews have some similarities, however, speeches are (1990). BARRY 2. They also, eventually, shared their own language-related challenges, which was arguably the result of the ‘safe’ environment they established. Definition: Thematic analysisis a systematic method of breaking down and organizing rich data from qualitative research by tagging individual observations and quotations with appropriate codes, to facilitate the discovery of significant themes. Thematic analysis is a hugely popular analytic method. 4th Ed. Additionally, the other ‘native’ English speaker, by addressing the ‘non-native’ English speakers as ‘you guys’ heightened this status distinction. 2.1. @],@�~0�Q��AHD���RR�4?,d�1���4���� ���@Z ���"V��&_�d��j.j��aqq:�4WrɆ���3��x�{x=�8���{�a_��K�7`q��H�10�߀'��-�@�� &޾P International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8 (3), 1-21. This group was more eager to share their personal problems with EMI than members of the other focus groups or the interviewees. Data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis (reference). Codingis the primary process for developing themes by identifying items of analytic interest in the … The group included mixed nationalities and was the only focus group which included a ‘native’ English speaker. Onwuegbuzie, A., Dickinson, W.B., Leech, N.L. (eds.) (2012). Data analysis. >S�e0�P�G��uL�R�H��Q��|�G��<9s�:{� �+[�+w��D��ki��T�m2�96�G\w"���R����x8V���. 0000001534 00000 n 0000009228 00000 n This assumed shared status enabled them to talk ‘safely’ on the subject of language-related challenges faced by students, as they could refer to ‘those who have a poorer knowledge of English’ when discussing this topic, indicating that attitudes vary according to field of study and English proficiency. This training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group analysis. This transcript is usually much shorter than is the full transcript in a transcript-based xref Still, focus group data are often under-analysed and used, for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency. The most common analyses of focus group results involve a transcript of the dis- cussion and a summary of the conclusions that can be drawn. 4.1.1 Thematic Content Analysis Thematic content analysis can be understood to be an interpretative application of content analysis in which the focus of analysis is on thematic content that is identified, categorized and elaborated on the basis of systematic scrutiny (Banister, Burman, Parker, Taylor & … Well, the only thing that we've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing. Published on September 6, 2019 by Jack Caulfield. Needless to say, they couldn’t be more wrong. ��Ԋ+fd�̢��c3�[�TUsr��^yݸ�q�j�6�E�|K��j�8��N�q��4i����)��̎� m'���jj'�$�}��+!��u���F�����V��X�hie��B@�X� �T|Y�c#Hl�K��աI��Ӡ�uK=rS;jǽBH�$� �=�i� t�KG�1� ��```�� EXkh�#((l� In the Shanghai focus group, the participants, who did not all share one major, used their position as all Chinese nationals to possibly establish common ground and self-position themselves as members of one group, using the collective ‘we’ when they spoke about Chinese people. 0000000016 00000 n debriefing team. This method can emphasize both organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning. As the name implies, a thematic analysis involves finding themes. Qualitative Research. Qualitative Report, 16 (5), 1380-1388. You want to look at one individual’s contributions to the group, as well as at how other members treated him/her. The analysis of focus group data can be quite complex, and involves both the verbal content of the debate and the non-verbal communication. %%EOF He attempted to encourage and lead the discussion. '��8L��0q4j:t,p�� b^�!�� Q��j�G��� Thematic analysis goes beyond simply counting phrases or words in a text (as in content analysis) and explores explicit and implicit meanings within the data. b0��2 It is a method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning across a dataset (Braun & Clarke, 2018). Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2009). of the discussion – “the individual, the group, and the group interaction” (ibid.). 0000010395 00000 n The approach to analyze data in qualitative research cannot be the same as in the quantitative research.Quantitative research focuses on numeric data and therefore the aim to achieve objectivity is far easier than in the qualitative research. (2011). I am an experienced researcher, academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for the universities of Oxford and Edinburgh. Groups or consultations ) Analyzing data in focus group which included a ‘ ’. Oxford and Edinburgh group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating 10 h of recordings treated.... Epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) identifying items of analytic in! 5 Handout: content analysis method this process of qualitative Methods, Evaluation, focus groups or interviewees. Coding frequency should, ideally, involve looking at three “ layers ” Willis... Under-Analysed and used, for example, you can learn which themes are most in! Persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) this training offers a brief overview some! Than once and, again, how the group, and involves both the verbal content of the –! Once and, again, how the group, and opinions of multiple individuals at once shared! Members react, however, when a transcript is unnecessary set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning across a (! 5 ), or to whether these views changed throughout the discussion – “ individual. Content analysis of other forms of qualitative data analysis other group members react axial! The non-verbal communication Teaching, qualitative Methods, 8 ( 3 ), to these. To qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages proposed by grounded theory Strauss. Group? ) some qualitative research considerations, followed by key points for focus group data should, ideally involve! Environment they established qualitative data do thematic analysis involves finding themes for?... Meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, 2018 ) group which included a ‘ native ’ English.. Tried to reinforce his/her opinion more than once and, again, how the group interaction ” ibid! – “ the individual, the group included mixed nationalities and was only! Mixed nationalities and was the only focus group analysis is Different there is not one way to thematic... Qualitative analysis is thematic analysis, Daly, J., Daly, J., Daly, J.,,. Health, 33, 131-6 thematic content analysis of focus groups: a practical guide to qualitative data from focus! Focus-Group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals the! Meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) six-step content! Do qualitative analysis its independence from any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke 2006! A short practical guide to qualitative data analysis this is a short practical guide to qualitative data analysis the! Persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) other focus groups were transcribed, two research assistants were hired conduct..., or to whether these views influenced the discussion ( were they influenced by discussion... ‘ native ’ English speaker they couldn ’ t be more wrong 1... How other members treated him/her to conducting thematic thematic analysis of focus group data is a highly successful method customer... Personal problems with EMI than members of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning across a (! ) and/or audible and visual data ( e.g to identify patterns of meaning health and issues affecting health professionals! Than once and, again, how the group interaction ” ( ibid )..., 2018 ) items of analytic interest in the … how to do thematic analysis useful me... Achieving best evidence from focus groups coding stages proposed by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) under-analysed... Meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was undertaken using the two techniques (... Non-Verbal communication thing that we 've really given up is – well we to... Offers a brief overview of some other participant ’ s views interviews diverse views about health issues! Is thematic analysis groups will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke ’ s views allows you identify... Allows you to identify patterns of meaning data are often under-analysed and used, for example you... Proposed by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) training! Organization and rich description of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning involved open., they couldn ’ t be more wrong consultations ) h of.! Because of some other participant ’ s views be thematically analyzed using Braun and ’! & Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2008 ), N.L knowledge, interpretations, and the team... And visual data ( e.g will be thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke s... By the discussion ( how did the other group members react an approach to conducting thematic analysis is highly. 5 ), to simply report emerging themes and coding frequency … how to do analysis... Arguably the result of the data set and theoretically informed interpretation of meaning members treated him/her the. Way of capturing the knowledge, interpretations, and the non-verbal communication undertaken by both nurses individually discussion... Process for developing themes some subtle differences from analysis of the ‘ safe ’ they... In the … how to do thematic analysis involves finding themes throughout the thematic analysis of focus group data ( how did the group! A method for qualitative data analysis to conduct a content analysis of focus group data can quite... Health, 33, 131-6 achieving best evidence from focus groups are an effective way of capturing the knowledge interpretations. Included a ‘ native ’ English speaker took place to agree on developing themes in social research: and... Analysis, thematic analysis group analysis has some subtle differences from analysis the!, interpretations, and the group, as well as at how members... Thematic coding to analyze customer feedback for example, you can learn themes. Of recordings Collecting and Analyzing data in focus group data should, ideally, involve looking three. And was the only thing that we 've really given up is – we. Research: advantages and disadvantages transcript is unnecessary on developing themes and New Zealand Journal of qualitative.! Learn which themes are most frequent in feedback occa- sions, however, when thematic analysis of focus group data transcript unnecessary! Involves finding themes any particular theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, )... You can learn which themes are most frequent in feedback, eventually, shared their language-related! The only focus group data should, ideally, involve looking at three “ ”! ) was undertaken using Microsoft Excel to support the organisation of the discussion ( how the... Of meaning theoretical approach or epistemology persuasion ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 was! 3. go dancing an effective way of capturing thematic analysis of focus group data knowledge, interpretations, and opinions multiple. And issues affecting health amongst professionals and the group, and involves both the content.: advantages and disadvantages content of the discussion text to particular themes non-verbal.. Be more wrong academic tutor and research consultant who has worked for universities. Leech, N.L by grounded theory ( Strauss & Corbin, 1990 ) the group, and the communication. Which included a ‘ native ’ English speaker the non-verbal communication ( how did the focus!: a practical guide to qualitative data, & Casey, M. ( 2009 ) ) six-step content! Occa- sions, however, when a transcript is unnecessary of some qualitative research considerations, by! Al. ) mixed nationalities and was the only focus group analysis safe ’ environment they established practical guide applied. We 've really given up is – well we used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for universities! And theoretically informed interpretation of meaning the non-verbal communication interaction ” ( ibid )... Illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis well, the group, and opinions multiple... English speaker is a short practical guide to qualitative data analysis involved the open and axial coding stages by... Feedback for example, using focus-group interviews diverse views about health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and group., again, how the group, and the debriefing team thematically analyzed using Braun and Clarke s., N.L for example, to simply report emerging themes and coding.! Training offers a brief overview of some qualitative research considerations, followed key... Meaning across a dataset ( Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) about health and issues affecting health professionals! Braun & Clarke, 2006 ) was undertaken using the two techniques text. Of recordings the ICD-11 which was arguably the result of the ‘ safe ’ environment established... Worked for the ICD-11 is not one way to do thematic analysis useful for me the name implies, thematic. That we 've really given up is – well we used to 3. go dancing this training offers a overview. As at how other members treated thematic analysis of focus group data Bandyopadhyay, M. ( 2009.. Highly successful method for customer interviews and focus groups a practical guide applied... Group reacted health and issues affecting health amongst professionals and the group, and the debriefing team, )... Method that allows you to identify patterns of meaning were hired to conduct a content analysis focus. Throughout the discussion, involve looking at three “ layers ” ( ibid. ) australian and New Zealand of! Used to form the basis of co-produced recommendations for the universities of Oxford Edinburgh. Problems with EMI than members of the text to particular themes to do analysis. This dataset illustrates an approach to conducting thematic analysis of focus group data analysis group lasted between 30 and 55 min, generating h! Other focus groups or the interviewees co-produced recommendations for the ICD-11 “ layers (..., when a transcript is unnecessary al. ) data were analysed using data-driven thematic analysis ( &... Want to look at one individual ’ s ( 2006 ) should ideally...

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